A protest by the inhabitants of the Armenian-populated village of
Chardakhly against the firing of the head of the village is brutally
supressed by the Azerbaijani police under the leadership of Asadov—the
first secretary of the Communist party regional comitee of the Shamkhor
district (Azerbaijan SSR). Many are beaten and arrested including
women and senior citizens. Complaints are sent to the office of
the Attorney General and to the Ministry of interior of the USSR.
A protest takes place in Stepanakert, the center of the Nagorno
Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO), demanding the re-unification
of NKAO with the Armenian SSR.
The extraordinary session of the NKAO Soviet of People's Deputies
passes the resolution "On Petitioning the Supreme Soviets of
the Azerbaijan SSR and Armenian SSR for NKAO's Transmission from
the Azerbaijan SSR Structure to the one of the Armenian SSR."
The crowd of furious Azerbaijanis from the town of Aghdam advancing
to Stepanakert is stopped by the police and Armenians near the Armenian-populated
town of Askeran. Two Azerbaijanis are reported dead, at least one
of them is shot by an Azerbaijani police officer.
One million people (500,000 according to a CIA report) rallied in
Yerevan in support of NKAO's re-unification with the Armenian SSR.
Pogroms of Armenians in the Azerbaijani city of Sumgait took place.
Following the hostilities between Armenians and Azerbaijanis Moscow
declare martial law in NKAO.
A disasterous earthquake almost ruins the Armenian cities of Leninakan
(now Gyumri) and Spitak. Right after that Armenian community of
Kirovabad, Azerbaijan (now Ganja) is forced to seek refuge in Armenia.
Azerbaijan starts the economic blockade of Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh.
The joint session of the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR and
the National Soviet of NKAO unanimously adopt a resolution on re-unification
of Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh.
Armenian pogroms begin in Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan.
The Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet introduces a state of emergency
in Nagorno Karabakh and some regions of Azerbaijan and Armenia.
January - June
So called "Operacia Kolco" ("The Ring Operation"):
Azerbaijani militia, supported by the Soviet military deports Armenians
from twenty-four villages in Shahumian (Northern Karabakh). Many
Armenians killed, beaten, raped.
Stepanakert is for the first time bombarded with artillery from
nearby Azerbaijani areas. Such incursions later become regular and
are viewed as a declaration of war by Azerbaijan.
A referendum on the independence of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic
takes place. As a result, 99.89% of those who vote do so for NKR
The NKR Supreme Council adopts a declaration on the national independence
of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic.
The first serious defeat of the regular Azerbaijani Army happens
near the Armenian village of Karin-Tak in the Shoushi region. This
victory becomes a moral booster for further successful military
operations by the Karabakh volunteer troops against the enemy.
Armenians take the village of Khojalu from where Azerbaijanis were
bombarding Stepanakert, the capital of Nagorno Karabakh.
A sudden attack by Azerbaijani forces on the Armenian village of
Maragha: 45 people are beheaded on the spot, 49 (including 9 children
and 18 women) are taken hostages. 19 of them are still missing.
Armenians of Maragha who returned to burry the bodies of their compatriots
are attacked again. More casualties are reported.
The town of Shoushi from where the Azerbaijani forces bombarded
the capital of NKR Stepanakert is taken by NKR Self-Defense Forces.
The NKR Self-Defense Forces conduct a successful operation opening
a humanitarian corridor through Lachin, finally opening the road
to the outside world.
The Azerbaijani forces begin large-scale offensives resulting in
occupation of the Shahoumian region, the northern part of the Martakert
region, and the eastern part of the Askeran region.
An agreement on bilateral cessation of artillery bombardments of
Agdam and Stepanakert is achieved between NKR and Azerbaijan with
the help of Russia's mediation.
An agreement on a one-week cessation of offensive military operations,
missile, and artillery bombardments in the Martakert and Agdam regions
is achieved between NKR and Azerbaijan, again with the help of Russia.
An agreement on the termination of offensive operations and bombardments
for a three-day term, beginning on 25 July 1993, is achieved under
A meeting of governmental delegations from NKR and Azerbaijan occurs
on the front line in the Martakert region. An agreement on the prolongation
of the cease-fire for and additional seven days more is reached.
A new 10-day cease-fire agreement is realize through Russia's mediation.
An agreement on the prolongation of the cease-fire regime until
November 5 is achieved under Russian guidance.
Azerbaijan violates the cease-fire terms and launches a large-scale
offensive against NKR along the entire front line.
Russia proposes a three-week cease-fire beginning on February 1,
A meeting between the heads of Parliaments from Azerbaijan, Nagorno
Karabakh, and Armenia takes place in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan under the
CIS Inter-Parliamentary Assembly (IPA). Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh
sign the "Bishkek Protocol." Azerbaijan later signs the
protocol on May 8,1994. The "Bishkek Protocol" becomes
the basis for a cease-fire agreement in the conflict zone.
The Russian mediation team draws up a comprehensive cease-fire agreement.
The defense authorities of Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Nagorno Karabakh
sign the document. The agreement became effective on May 12, 1994.
- Web site of
Nagorno Karabakh Republic office in Washington
of the conflict prepared in August of 1990 by CIA
prepared by the "Memorial" Society (Russia)